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**✓** Checked for updates, April 2022. Accountingverse.com

## Introduction

Financial ratio analysis is performed by comparing two items in the financial statements. The resulting ratio can be interpreted in a way that is more insightful than looking at the items separately.

## List of Financial Ratios

Here is a list of various financial ratios. Take note that many of the ratios are often expressed in percentage - *just multiply them by 100%*. Each ratio is also briefly described.

### Profitability Ratios

**Gross Profit Rate**= Gross Profit ÷ Net SalesEvaluates how much gross profit is generated from sales. Gross profit is equal to net sales (

*sales minus sales returns, discounts, and allowances*) minus cost of sales.**Return on Sales**= Net Income ÷ Net SalesAlso known as "net profit margin" or "net profit rate", it measures the percentage of income derived from dollar sales. Generally, the higher the ROS the better.

**Return on Assets**= Net Income ÷ Average Total AssetsIn financial analysis, it is the measure of the

*return on investment*. ROA is used in evaluating management's efficiency in using assets to generate income.**Return on Stockholders' Equity**= Net Income ÷ Average Stockholders' EquityMeasures the percentage of income derived for every dollar of owners' equity.

### Liquidity Ratios

**Current Ratio**= Current Assets ÷ Current LiabilitiesEvaluates the ability of a company to pay short-term obligations using current assets (cash, marketable securities, current receivables, inventory, and prepayments).

**Acid-Test Ratio**= Quick Assets ÷ Current LiabilitiesAlso known as "

*quick ratio*", it measures the ability of a company to pay short-term obligations using the more liquid types of current assets or "quick assets" (cash, marketable securities, and current receivables).**Cash Ratio**= ( Cash + Marketable Securities ) ÷ Current LiabilitiesMeasures the ability of a company to pay its current liabilities using cash and marketable securities. Marketable securities are short-term debt instruments that are as good as cash.

**Net Working Capital**= Current Assets - Current LiabilitiesDetermines if a company can meet its current obligations with its current assets; and how much excess or deficiency there is.

### Management Efficiency Ratios

**Receivable Turnover**= Net Credit Sales ÷ Average Accounts ReceivableMeasures the efficiency of extending credit and collecting the same. It indicates the average number of times in a year a company collects its open accounts. A high ratio implies efficient credit and collection process.

**Days Sales Outstanding**= 360 Days ÷ Receivable TurnoverAlso known as

*"receivable turnover in days"*,*"collection period"*. It measures the average number of days it takes a company to collect a receivable. The shorter the DSO, the better. Take note that some use 365 days instead of 360.**Inventory Turnover**= Cost of Sales ÷ Average InventoryRepresents the number of times inventory is sold and replaced. Take note that some authors use Sales in lieu of Cost of Sales in the above formula. A high ratio indicates that the company is efficient in managing its inventories.

**Days Inventory Outstanding**= 360 Days ÷ Inventory TurnoverAlso known as

*"inventory turnover in days"*. It represents the number of days inventory sits in the warehouse. In other words, it measures the number of days from purchase of inventory to the sale of the same. Like DSO, the shorter the DIO the better.**Accounts Payable Turnover**= Net Credit Purchases ÷ Ave. Accounts PayableRepresents the number of times a company pays its accounts payable during a period. A low ratio is favored because it is better to delay payments as much as possible so that the money can be used for more productive purposes.

**Days Payable Outstanding**= 360 Days ÷ Accounts Payable TurnoverAlso known as

*"accounts payable turnover in days"*,*"payment period"*. It measures the average number of days spent before paying obligations to suppliers. Unlike DSO and DIO, the longer the DPO the better (as explained above).**Operating Cycle**= Days Inventory Outstanding + Days Sales OutstandingMeasures the number of days a company makes 1 complete operating cycle, i.e. purchase merchandise, sell them, and collect the amount due. A shorter operating cycle means that the company generates sales and collects cash faster.

**Cash Conversion Cycle**= Operating Cycle - Days Payable OutstandingCCC measures how fast a company converts cash into more cash. It represents the number of days a company

*pays*for purchases, sells them, and collects the amount due. Generally, like operating cycle, the shorter the CCC the better.**Total Asset Turnover**= Net Sales ÷ Average Total AssetsMeasures overall efficiency of a company in generating sales using its assets. The formula is similar to ROA, except that net sales is used instead of net income.

### Leverage Ratios

**Debt Ratio**= Total Liabilities ÷ Total AssetsMeasures the portion of company assets that is financed by debt (obligations to third parties). Debt ratio can also be computed using the formula: 1 minus

*Equity Ratio*.**Equity Ratio**= Total Equity ÷ Total AssetsDetermines the portion of total assets provided by equity (i.e. owners' contributions and the company's accumulated profits). Equity ratio can also be computed using the formula: 1 minus

*Debt Ratio*.The reciprocal of equity ratio is known as

*equity multiplier*, which is equal to total assets divided by total equity.**Debt-to-Equity Ratio**= Total Liabilities ÷ Total EquityEvaluates the capital structure of a company. A D/E ratio of more than 1 implies that the company is a leveraged firm; less than 1 implies that it is a conservative one.

**Times Interest Earned**= EBIT ÷ Interest ExpenseMeasures the number of times interest expense is converted to income, and if the company can pay its interest expense using the profits generated. EBIT is earnings before interest and taxes.

### Valuation and Growth Ratios

**Earnings per Share**= ( Net Income - Preferred Dividends ) ÷ Average Common Shares OutstandingEPS shows the rate of earnings per share of common stock. Preferred dividends is deducted from net income to get the earnings available to common stockholders.

**Price-Earnings Ratio**= Market Price per Share ÷ Earnings per ShareUsed to evaluate if a stock is over- or under-priced. A relatively

*low P/E ratio*could indicate that the company is under-priced. Conversely, investors expect high growth rate from companies with*high P/E ratio*.**Dividend Pay-out Ratio**= Dividend per Share ÷ Earnings per ShareDetermines the portion of net income that is distributed to owners. Not all income is distributed since a significant portion is retained for the next year's operations.

**Dividend Yield Ratio**= Dividend per Share ÷ Market Price per ShareMeasures the percentage of return through dividends when compared to the price paid for the stock. A high yield is attractive to investors who are after dividends rather than long-term capital appreciation.

**Book Value per Share**= Common SHE ÷ Average Common SharesIndicates the value of stock based on historical cost. The value of common shareholders' equity in the books of the company is divided by the average common shares outstanding.

## Some Tips

When computing for a ratio that involves an income statement item and a balance sheet item, we *usually* use the average for the balance sheet item. This is because the income statement item pertains to a whole period's activity. The balance sheet item should reflect the whole period as well; that's why we average the beginning and ending balances.

There are other financial ratios in addition those listed above. The ones listed here are the most common ratios used in evaluating a business. In interpreting the ratios, it is beneficial to have a basis for comparison, such as the company's past performance and industry standards.

Key Takeaways

Financial ratios and metrics can be classified into those that measure:

- profitability,
- liquidity,
- management efficiency,
- leverage, and
- valuation & growth.

This article summarized all of the most commonly used ratios and metrics in financial analysis. Feel free to bookmark this page and refer to the list anytime.

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Management Accounting

More Managerial Accounting Topics

1

Introduction to Managerial Accounting2

Cost Concepts and Classifications3

Cost Behavior and Analysis4

Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis5

Pricing Decisions6

Relevant Costing7

Responsibility Accounting8

Standard Costing and Variance Analysis9

Financial Ratio Analysis

As an expert in financial analysis and management accounting, I can attest to the importance of understanding and utilizing financial ratios for effective decision-making and evaluation of a business's performance. My expertise is built on a solid foundation of academic knowledge, practical application, and continuous engagement with industry developments.

Financial ratio analysis is a powerful tool that aids in assessing various aspects of a company's financial health. Let's delve into the concepts introduced in the provided article:

**1. Profitability Ratios:**

**Gross Profit Rate:**This ratio assesses the efficiency of generating gross profit from sales.**Return on Sales (ROS):**Also known as net profit margin, it measures the percentage of income derived from dollar sales.**Return on Assets (ROA):**Evaluates management's efficiency in using assets to generate income.**Return on Stockholders' Equity:**Measures the percentage of income derived for every dollar of owners' equity.

**2. Liquidity Ratios:**

**Current Ratio:**Evaluates the ability to pay short-term obligations using current assets.**Acid-Test Ratio:**Measures the ability to pay short-term obligations using more liquid current assets.**Cash Ratio:**Evaluates the ability to pay current liabilities using cash and marketable securities.**Net Working Capital:**Determines if a company can meet current obligations with current assets.

**3. Management Efficiency Ratios:**

**Receivable Turnover:**Measures the efficiency of extending credit and collecting accounts.**Days Sales Outstanding (DSO):**Represents the average number of days it takes to collect a receivable.**Inventory Turnover:**Represents the number of times inventory is sold and replaced.**Days Inventory Outstanding (DIO):**Measures the number of days inventory sits in the warehouse.**Accounts Payable Turnover:**Represents the number of times a company pays its accounts payable.**Days Payable Outstanding (DPO):**Measures the average number of days before paying obligations to suppliers.**Operating Cycle:**Measures the number of days to complete one operating cycle.**Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC):**Measures how fast a company converts cash into more cash.**Total Asset Turnover:**Measures overall efficiency in generating sales using assets.

**4. Leverage Ratios:**

**Debt Ratio:**Measures the portion of company assets financed by debt.**Equity Ratio:**Determines the portion of total assets provided by equity.**Debt-to-Equity Ratio:**Evaluates the capital structure of a company.**Times Interest Earned:**Measures the number of times interest expense is converted to income.

**5. Valuation and Growth Ratios:**

**Earnings per Share (EPS):**Shows the rate of earnings per share of common stock.**Price-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio):**Used to evaluate if a stock is over- or under-priced.**Dividend Pay-out Ratio:**Determines the portion of net income distributed to owners.**Dividend Yield Ratio:**Measures the percentage of return through dividends.**Book Value per Share:**Indicates the value of stock based on historical cost.

This comprehensive set of ratios covers key dimensions of a company's financial performance, allowing stakeholders to make informed decisions. When interpreting these ratios, it's crucial to consider factors such as historical performance and industry benchmarks for a more meaningful analysis. Financial ratio analysis is an indispensable tool in the realm of management accounting, providing valuable insights for strategic decision-making.