Ratios track company performance. They can rate and compare one company against another that you might be considering investing in. The term "ratio" conjures up complex and frustrating high school math problems, but that need not be the case. Ratios can help make you a more informed investor when they're properly understood and applied.
Key Takeaways
 Fundamental analysis relies on data from corporate financial statements to compute various ratios.
 Fundamental analysis is used to determine a security's intrinsic or true value so it can be compared with the security's market value.
 There are six basic ratios that are often used to pick stocks for investment portfolios.
 Ratios include the working capital ratio, the quick ratio, earnings per share (EPS), priceearnings (P/E), debttoequity, and return on equity (ROE).
 Most ratios are best used in combination with others rather than singly to accomplish a comprehensive picture of a company's financial health.
1. Working Capital Ratio
Assessing the health of a company in which you want to invest involves measuring its liquidity. The term liquidity refers to how easily a company can turn assets into cash to pay shortterm obligations. The working capital ratio can be useful in helping you measure liquidity. It represents a company'sability to payits current liabilities with its current assets.
Working capitalis the difference between a firm’s current assets and current liabilities: current assets  current liabilities = working capital.
The working capital ratio, like working capital, compares current assets to current liabilities and is a metric used to measure liquidity. The working capital ratio is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities: current assets / current liabilities = working capital ratio.
Let's say that XYZ company has current assets of $8 million and current liabilities of $4 million. The working capital ratio is 2 ($8 million / $4 million). That's an indication of healthy shortterm liquidity. But what if two similar companies each had ratios of 2? The firm with more cash among its current assets would be able to pay off its debts more quickly than the other.
A working capital ratio of 1 can imply that a company may have liquidity troubles and not be able to pay its shortterm liabilities. But the trouble could be temporary and later improve.
A working capital ratio of 2 or higher can indicate healthy liquidity and the ability to pay shortterm liabilities, but it could also point to a company that has too much in shortterm assets such as cash. Some of these assets might be better used to invest in the company or to pay shareholder dividends.
It can be a challenge to determine the proper category for the vast array of assets and liabilities on a corporatebalance sheetto decipher the overall ability of a firm to meet its shortterm commitments.
2. Quick Ratio
The quick ratio is also called the acid test. It's another measure of liquidity. It represents a company's ability to pay current liabilities with assets that can be converted to cash quickly.
The calculation for the quick ratio is current assets  inventory prepaid expenses / current liabilities (current assets minus inventory minus prepaid expenses divided by current liabilities). The formula removes inventory because it can take time to sell and convert inventory into liquid assets.
XYZ company has $8 million in current assets, $2 million in inventory and prepaid expenses, and $4 million in current liabilities. That means the quick ratio is 1.5 ($8 million  $2 million / $4 million). It indicates that the company has enough to money to pay its bills and continue operating.
A quick ratio of less than 1 can indicate that there aren't enough liquid assets to pay shortterm liabilities. The company may have to raise capital or take other actions. On the other hand, it may be a temporary situation.
3. Earnings Per Share (EPS)
When buying a stock, you participate in the future earnings or the risk of loss of the company. Earnings per share (EPS) is a measure of the profitability of a company. Investors use it to gain an understanding of company value.
The company's analysts calculate EPS by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year: net income / weighted average = earnings per share. Earnings per share will also be zero or negative if a company has zero earnings or negative earnings representing a loss. A higher EPS indicates greater value.
4. PriceEarnings Ratio (P/E)
Called P/E for short, this ratio is used by investors to determine a stock's potential for growth. It reflects how much they would pay to receive $1 of earnings. It's often used to compare the potential value of a selection of stocks.
To calculate the P/E ratio, divide a company's current stock price by its earningspershare to calculate the P/E ratio: current stock price / earning pershare = priceearnings ratio.
A company's P/E ratio would be 9.49 ($46.51 / $4.90) if it closed trading at $46.51 a share and the EPS for the past 12 months averaged $4.90. Investors would spend $9.49 for every generated dollar of annual earnings. Investors have been willing to pay more than 20 times the EPS for certain stocks when they've felt that a future growth in earnings would give them adequate returns on their investments.
The P/E ratio will no longer make sense if a company has zero or negative earnings. It will appear as N/A for "not applicable."
Ratios can help improve your investing results when they're properly understood and applied.
5. DebttoEquity Ratio
What if your prospective investment target is borrowing too much? This can increase fixed charges, reduce earnings available for dividends, and pose a risk to shareholders.
The debttoequity (D/E) ratio measures how much a company is funding its operations using borrowed money. It can indicate whether shareholder equity can cover all debts, if necessary. Investors often use it to compare the leverage used by different companies in the same industry. This can help them to determine which might be a lowerrisk investment.
Divide total liabilities by total shareholders' equity to calculate the debttoequity ratio: total liabilities / total shareholders' equity = debttoequity ratio. Let's say that company XYZ has $3.1 million worth of loans and shareholders' equity of $13.3 million. That works out to a modest ratio of 0.23, which is acceptable under most circ*mstances. But like all other ratios, the metric must be analyzed in terms of industry norms and companyspecific requirements.
6. Return on Equity(ROE)
Return on equity (ROE) measures profitability and how effectively a company uses shareholder money to make a profit. ROE is expressed as a percentage of common stock shareholders.
It's calculated by taking net income (income less expenses and taxes) figured before paying common share dividends and after paying preferred share dividends. Divide the result by total shareholders' equity: net income (expenses and taxes before paying common share dividends and after paying preferred share dividends) / total shareholders' equity = return on equity.
Let's say XYZ company's net income is $1.3 million. Its shareholder equity is $8 million. ROE is therefore 16.25%. The higher the ROE, the better the company is at generating profits using shareholder equity.
What's a Good ROE?
Returnonequity or ROE is a metric used to analyze investment returns. It's a measure of how effectively a company uses shareholder equity to generate income. You might consider a good ROE to be one that increases steadily over time. This could indicate that a company does a good job using shareholder funds to increase profits. That can in turn increase shareholder value.
What Is Fundamental Analysis?
Fundamental analysis is the analysis of an investment or security to discover its true or intrinsic value. It involves the study of economic, industry, and company information. Fundamental analysis can be useful because an investor can determine if the security is fairly priced, overvalued, or undervalued by comparing its true value to its market value.
Fundamental analysis contrasts with technical analysis, which focuses on determining price action and uses different tools to do so, such as chart patterns and price trends.
Is a Higher or Lower P/E Ratio Better?
It depends on what you're looking for in an investment. A P/E ratio measures the relationship of a stock's price to earnings per share. A lower P/E ratio can indicate that a stock is undervalued and perhaps worth buying, but it could be low because the company isn't financially healthy.
A higher P/E can indicate that a stock is expensive, but that could be because the company is doing well and could continue to do so.
The best way to use P/E is often as a relative value comparison tool for stocks you're interested in, or you might want to compare the P/E of one or more stocks to an industry average.
The Bottom Line
Financial ratios can help you pick the best stocks for your portfolio and build your wealth. Dozens of financial ratios are used in fundamental analysis. We've briefly highlighted six of the most common and the easiest to calculate.
Remember that a company cannot be properly evaluated using just one ratio in isolation. Be sure to put a variety of ratios to use for more confident investment decisionmaking.
As a financial expert and enthusiast with a deep understanding of investment analysis, let me dive into the concepts outlined in the provided article. My experience in financial analysis and investment strategies has equipped me with the knowledge to elucidate the intricacies of the six fundamental ratios mentioned: working capital ratio, quick ratio, earnings per share (EPS), priceearnings (P/E) ratio, debttoequity ratio, and return on equity (ROE).

Working Capital Ratio:
 This ratio assesses a company's liquidity by measuring its ability to pay shortterm obligations with current assets. The formula is: Current Assets / Current Liabilities = Working Capital Ratio. A ratio of 2 or higher generally indicates healthy shortterm liquidity, but excessively high ratios may suggest inefficient asset utilization.

Quick Ratio:
 Also known as the acid test, the quick ratio measures a company's ability to meet shortterm liabilities with assets quickly convertible to cash, excluding inventory. The formula is: (Current Assets  Inventory  Prepaid Expenses) / Current Liabilities = Quick Ratio. A ratio below 1 may indicate potential liquidity issues.

Earnings Per Share (EPS):
 EPS is a key metric for assessing a company's profitability. It is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. The formula is: Net Income / Weighted Average Shares Outstanding = EPS. A higher EPS indicates greater value and profitability.

PriceEarnings (P/E) Ratio:
 The P/E ratio is a valuation metric used to assess a stock's potential for growth. It compares the current stock price to the earnings per share. The formula is: Current Stock Price / Earnings Per Share = P/E Ratio. Investors use this ratio for relative value comparisons, and a lower or higher P/E ratio can indicate undervaluation or overvaluation, respectively.

DebttoEquity Ratio (D/E):
 This ratio measures the proportion of a company's funding that comes from borrowed money. It is calculated by dividing total liabilities by total shareholders' equity: Total Liabilities / Total Shareholders' Equity = DebttoEquity Ratio. A lower ratio is generally preferable, as it suggests lower financial risk.

Return on Equity (ROE):
 ROE evaluates how effectively a company utilizes shareholder equity to generate profits. The formula is: Net Income / Total Shareholders' Equity = ROE. A higher ROE indicates efficient use of equity and profitability, making it a crucial metric for evaluating a company's performance.
Fundamental Analysis:
 The article emphasizes that fundamental analysis relies on data from corporate financial statements to compute various ratios. It involves studying economic, industry, and company information to determine a security's intrinsic value and compare it with its market value.
P/E Ratio Considerations:
 The article highlights that whether a higher or lower P/E ratio is better depends on specific investment goals. A lower P/E may indicate undervaluation, but it could also signal financial issues. A higher P/E might suggest overvaluation, but it could signify a thriving company with growth potential.
In conclusion, these ratios provide essential insights into a company's financial health and performance. However, the article emphasizes the importance of using a combination of ratios for a comprehensive understanding and confident investment decisionmaking. As an expert, I endorse the approach of considering multiple financial metrics in tandem to form a holistic view of a company's prospects.